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ネットワーク仮想化 アーカイブ

金田 泰, 中尾 彰宏, 電子情報通信学会情報ネットワーク (IN) 研究会, 2010-9-2.

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要約: 情報通信研究機構 (NICT) においてはネットワーク仮想化技術を使用して任意のフレーム形式をもつ非 IP プロトコルを実装可能にした 10 Gbps 級の仮想化ノード (VNode) を開発している. 我々はそれを利用して実験的な非 IP プロトコル IPEC (IP Ether Chimera) を開発した. IPEC においては IP アドレスのような階層化可能なアドレスを Ethernet スイッチの学習アルゴリズムを拡張したアルゴリズムによって学習する. IPEC はつぎのような特徴をもつ. 第 1 に Ethernet,IP それぞれの特徴的な機能の一部を 1 層の単純な非 IP プロトコルによって実現している. 第 2 に学習をグループ単位でおこなうため,Ethernet よりスケールするうえ,グループ単位の移動が効率的に学習できる. 第 3 にこのアルゴリズムはループをふくむネットワークでも使用でき,障害時にも代替経路で通信できる. グループ ID はロケータとしても使用できるため,ID/Locator 分離を拡張したアーキテクチャを実現しているとかんがえることができる. IPEC を VNode 上に実装して,グループ単位の学習や端末の移動に実際に対応できることを実験により確認した.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

関連論文: 仮想化ノードを使用した非 IP プロトコル開発法と経験

関連するブログのページ:

キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化ノード, 非 IP プロトコル, アドレス学習, ID/Locator 分離, モビリティ, VNode

金田 泰, 中尾 彰宏, 電子情報通信学会インターネットアーキテクチャ (IA) 研究会, 2010-12-17.

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[ 論文 PDF ファイル (C) IEICE]
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要約: 情報通信研究機構 (NICT) の仮想化ノード・プロジェクトは,ネットワーク仮想化技術を使用して自由なフレーム形式をもつ非 IP プロトコルを実装可能にした 10 Gbps 級の仮想化ノード (VNode) を開発している. VNode は研究開発用ネットワーク JGN2plus に導入され,開発者 (JGN2plus 使用者) のためのユーザビリティ向上が課題になっている. そこで我々は,課題解決のための第一歩として VNode を使用した実験用ネットワーク上で IPEC (IP-Ether-Chimera) という非 IP プロトコルを開発・実験してその手順や経験を記述し,そこからユーザビリティに関する問題やノウハウを抽出した. 課題として開発者によるケアレスミスの防止策の必要性,ノウハウとして Linux PC による小規模な実験を VNode を使用した広域網の実験にスケールアップすることによって開発を容易化できることがあげられる. 今回の実験には広帯域は必要でなかったが,今後 10 Gbps の帯域を活用した実験へのスケールアップも比較的容易に実現できるとかんがえられる.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

関連論文: 仮想化ノードを使用した実験用非 IP プロトコルの開発

関連するブログのページ:

キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化ノード, 非 IP プロトコル, アドレス学習

Kanada, Y., and Tarui, T., 10th International Conference on Networks (ICN 2011), 2011-1-24.

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[ ThinkMind Paper page ]
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要約: Two network-virtualization architectures, namely, network segmentation and network paging, were investigated. They are analogical to two memory-virtualization architectures: segmentation and paging. Network paging, which is relatively new and is based on a type of network-address translation (NAT), is focused on. This architecture requires smaller packet size and has several more advantages over the conventional architecture (i.e., network segmentation). Intranet- and extranet- type communication methods based on this architecture are described. An address translators is placed at each edge router in the WAN and used to evaluate client-server communication under wide-area virtual-machine (VM) live migration as a case of extranet-type communication.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: Network Virtualization, Segmentation, Paging, Network Address Translation, NAT, Extranet, Virtual Network, ネットワーク仮想化, 仮想ネットワーク

Kanada, Y., and Tarui, T., 25th International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN 2011), 2011-1-28, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icoin.2011.5723191

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要約: In cloud-computing environments, migration of virtual machines (VMs) between data centers can solve many problems such as load balancing and power saving. One of the difficulties in wide-area migration, however, is the “address-warping” problem, in which the address of the VM warps from the source server to the destination server. This confuses or complicates the status of the WAN, and the LANs connected to the WAN. We propose two solutions to this problem. One is to switch an address-translation rule, and the other is to switch multiple virtual networks. The former is analogous to paging in memory virtualization, and the latter is analogous to segmentation. The “network-paging” based method is described and our evaluation results are shown. It took less than 100 ms in average to switch from the source to the destination server using this method.

研究テーマ紹介: ポリシーにもとづくネットワーキング

キーワード: Network Virtualization, Virtual Network, ネットワーク仮想化, 仮想ネットワーク

金田 泰, 垂井俊明, 情報処理学会論文誌, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 1-17, 2011.

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[ PDF 版論文へのいりぐち (IPSJ) ]

要旨: ネットワーク仮想化は,ひとつの物理的なネットワーク上で多様なサービスを相互に干渉せず実現し,かつ単純にプログラムしカスタマイズすることを可能にする. ネットワーク仮想化は,IP,VLAN,あるいは NAT を使用するなど,多様な機構によって実現できる. 我々はこれらの実現手段に依存しない統一的な仮想ネットワークのモデルをつくり,そのモデルによって記述した仮想ネットワークを基本的に変更せずに多様な実現手段のネットワーク上に展開可能にすることをめざしている. この論文では仮想ネットワークのモデルとその主要な部品を定義し,それによって広域ライブ・マイグレーションのための仮想ネットワークを記述し,さらにそれをネットワーク・パーティション (VLAN による VRF) とアドレス・マッピング (NAT) という 2 つの実現方法による仮想ネットワークに展開できることを示す. この方法を仮想ネットワーク設定プロトタイプを新規開発して評価した. その結果,アドレス範囲指定やルーティング・パラメタの指定は実現手段ごとに変更する必要があったが,モデル記述の主要部分は共通化できた.

研究テーマ紹介: ポリシーにもとづくネットワーキング

キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化, 仮想ネットワーク

金田 泰, 垂井 俊明 電子情報通信学会 ネットワーク仮想化時限研究会 第 2 回, 2011-11-10.

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(論文はありません)

要約: NICT の仮想化ノード・プロジェクトにおいて開発してきた仮想化基盤と G-lambda, ProtoGENI などとのフェデレーションすなわち仮想化基盤間に またがるスライスの生成・管理の機構を NICT 委託研において共同開発している. フェデレーション機能をもっていないこの仮想化基盤を改造する ことなく,付加的な機構をつかってフェデレーションを実現する方法について発表する.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化

Kanada, Y., Shiraishi, K., and Nakao, A., COMSNETS 2012, 2012-1-6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/comsnets.2012.6151366
[ English page ]
[ 論文 PDF file ]
[ ポスター PDF file ]

[ IEEExplore論文ページ ]

要約: In network virtualization [Nak 10a], it is important to avoid resource interference, e.g., concerning communication bandwidth and delay, so that a single slice (virtual network) may not disrupt the whole infrastructure. To avoid this type of interference, a method for network-resource isolation (NRI) must be developed. Two types of traffic-control mechanisms, i.e., traffic shaping and traffic policing, can be used for NRI. To more effectively implement NRI using these mechanisms, two methods are proposed in this study: the “per-slice shaping” using weighted fair queuing (WFQ) and the “per-link policing” (per-virtual-link policing).

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化


キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化

金田 泰, 中尾 彰宏, 電子情報通信学会 ネットワーク仮想化時限研究会 第 3 回, 2012-3-2.

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(論文はありません)

要約: 共同研究プロジェクトにおいて仮想化ノード (VNode) およびそれによって構成されるネットワーク仮想化基盤を開発し,発展させている. VNode の特徴として 「要素独立進化型アーキテクチャ」 がある. すなわち,VNode においては,その構成要素 (プログラマ,リダイレクタ) が独立に進化できるアーキテクチャを実現している. この発表においては 「クリーンな仮想化」 という概念を提案し,VNode が この概念をほぼ実現していること,要素独立進化型アーキテクチャを実現するうえでこの概念が重要であることをしめす. また,VNode とくにその一部であるリダイレクタにおける要素独立進化型アーキテクチャと 「クリーンな仮想化」実現のしくみをしめす.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化

Kanada, Y. and Nakao, A., World Telecommunication Congress 2012 (WTC 2012), 2012-3-5.

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要約: We have developed an experimental non-IP/non-Ethernet protocol called IPEC (IP Ether Chimera). IPEC switches learn IPEC addresses that are structured hierarchically, similar to IP addresses, using an algorithm that extends the learning algorithm of Ethernet switches. IPEC is a simple non-IP network-layer protocol that has features of both Ethernet and IP. Unlike IP, IPEC introduces an address group to manage multiple terminals as a group to make learning of mobile terminals more scalable and more efficient than Ethernet. Because an address group is the unit of learning in IPEC, it is more scalable than Ethernet, and mobile groups can be learned more efficiently. In addition, IPEC tolerates loops in a network as long as a limited number of duplicate packets are allowed, and thus, enable an alternative route against link failures. We have implemented IPEC both on an IPEC-capable switches using LAN cards and on a virtual network using virtualization nodes (VNodes), which have been developed to experiment with non-IP protocols such as IPEC. We show evaluations that the group learning function of IPEC is viable especially for multiple terminals moving together concurrently.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化

Kanada, Y., Shiraishi, K., and Nakao, A., 17th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC 2012), 2012-7-4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iscc.2012.6249393
[ English page ]
[ 論文 PDF file ]
[ スライド PDF file ]
[ IEEExplore 論文ページ ]

要約: One key requirement for achieving network virtualization is resource isolation among slices (virtual networks), that is, to avoid interferences between slices of resources. This paper proposes two methods, per-slice shaping and per-link policing for network-resource isolation (NRI) in terms of bandwidth and delay. These methods use traffic shaping and traffic policing, which are widely-used traffic control methods for guaranteeing QoS. Per-slice shaping utilizes weighted fair queuing (WFQ) usually applied to a finegrained flow such as a flow from a specific server application to a user. Since the WFQ for fine-grained flows requires many queues, it may not scale to a large number of slices with a large number of virtual nodes. Considering that the purpose of NRI is not thoroughly guaranteeing QoS but avoiding interferences between slices, we believe per-slice shaping suffices our objective. In contrast, per-link policing uses traffic policing per virtual link. It requires less resource and achieves less strict isolation between hundreds of slices. Our results show that both methods perform NRI well but the performance of the former is better in terms of delay. Accordingly, per-slice shaping is effective for delay-sensitive services while per-link policing may be sufficiently used for the other types of services.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード:

金田 泰,白石 圭,中尾 彰宏,電子情報通信学会 ネットワーク仮想化時限研究会, 2012-10-11.
[ English page ]
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[ スライド PDF file ]

要約: 複数の仮想化ノード(VNode) によって構成されるネットワーク仮想化基盤においては,多数のスライス (仮想ネットワーク) を同時に,他のスライスから隔離された状態で動作させることができる. スライスがふくむ仮想ノード (ノードスリバー) どうしは仮想リンク (リンクスリバー) によって自由に最高 10 Gbps で接続でき,そのなかでは Ethernet や IP にしばられない任意のプロトコルが使用できる. VNode においては,GRE トンネルを使用して仮想リンクを IP ネットワーク上に実装している. また,ネットワーク収容装置 (NACE, NC) を使用してパケット・データ・フォーマットを外部ネットワーク用に変換することにより, スライスを外部の VLAN ネットワークに最高 10 Gbps で接続できる. この論文では,スライス開発者からこれらの接続がどのように参照・定義され, またそれがどのように変換され物理的な通信が実現されるかをを記述する.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化基盤,仮想化ノード,VNode,スライス,仮想ネットワーク,ノードスリバー,リンクスリバー,ネットワーク収容

Kanada, Y., Shiraishi, K., and Nakao, N., IARIA Infocomp 2012, 2012-10-24.
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[ ThinkMind 論文ページ ]
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要約: The architecture for programmable networkvirtualization platforms, i.e., the VNode architecture, has been developed in a project called the Virtualization Node Project. This paper introduces a type of physical node called Network ACcommodation Equipment (NACE) to the VNode architecture. NACE has dual roles in this architecture. The first role is as a network-slice gateway between an external network (Ethernet/VLAN) and a slice (virtual network). NACE can accommodate a data center or another testbed in a slice with high-performance (up to 10 Gbps) data-format conversion. The second role is as a special type of virtualization node that implements intra-slice virtual switch by using Ethernet hardware, which can replace software-based switching using a VM or a network processor. These roles are modeled as a node sliver (virtual node) with a gateway function and a node sliver with a switching function (i.e., a switch node-sliver), and these node slivers are specified by using XML. These functions were evaluated by using two testbeds, and the evaluation results confirm that both functions work correctly and perform well in terms of delay and packet loss.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: network virtualization; virtual network; network accommodation; network-slice gateway; virtual switch; intraslice switching

Kanada, Y., Shiraishi, K., and Nakao, A., 13th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS 2012), 2012-11-23, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iccs.2012.6406171
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[ 論文 PDF file ]
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要約: “Virtualization nodes” (VNodes) for programma­ble network-virtualization platforms are being developed. Criteria for “clean” network-virtualization are devised and applied to this platform and slices (virtual networks). These criteria meet one of the challenges targeted by the Virtualization Node Project, that is, to enable mutually independent development and evolution of compo­nents (namely, computational compo­nents called programmers and networking compo­nents called redirectors) in VNodes. To meet this challenge, the redirector plays the central role in implementing the following two functions of VNodes. The first function is creation of mapping between virtual links to external physical paths and mapping between virtual links to internal physical paths, which makes it possible to hide various alterna­tive computa­tional components in the VNode from the external network and to hide these external-network representa­tions from the internal compo­nents. The second function is imple­mentation of high-performance data conversion, which connects the exter­nal and internal data formats or mappings, by using an add-on card with a network processor. Two results are obtained from the performance evaluation of these functions. First, the overhead caused by mapping creation can be hidden by other tasks under normal conditions, but the overhead caused by mapping deletion must be reduced. Second, the data-conversion rate is half the wire rate, which should be increased in future work.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: Clean network virtualization, Virtualization node, VNode, Modularity, Model-mapping separation, Packet data conversion

Kanada, Y., Shiraishi, K., and Nakao, A., IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol. E96-B, No. 1, pp. 20-30, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1587/transcom.e96.b.20
[ English page ]
[ 論文 PDF file ]

要約: One key requirement for achieving network virtualization is resource isolation among slices (virtual networks), that is, to avoid interferences between slices of resources. This paper proposes two methods, per-slice shaping and per-link policing for network-resource isolation (NRI) in terms of bandwidth and delay. These methods use traffic shaping and traffic policing, which are widely-used traffic control methods for guaranteeing QoS. Per-slice shaping utilizes weighted fair queuing (WFQ) usually applied to a fine-grained flow such as a flow from a specific server application to a user. Since the WFQ for fine-grained flows requires many queues, it may not scale to a large number of slices with a large number of virtual nodes. Considering that the purpose of NRI is not thoroughly guaranteeing QoS but avoiding interferences between slices, we believe per-slice (not per virtual link) shaping satisfies our objective. In contrast, per-link policing uses traffic policing per virtual link. It requires less resource and achieves less-strict but more-scalable isolation between hundreds of slices (500 to 700 slices in estimation). Our results show that both methods perform NRI well but the performance of the former is better in terms of delay. Accordingly, per-slice shaping (with/without policing) is effective for delay-sensitive services while per-link policing may be sufficiently used for the other types of services.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: Resource isolation, Network virtualization, Virtual network, Per-slice shaping, Per-link policing, Weighted fair queuing, WFQ.

Kanada, Y., Tarui, T., and Shiraishi, K., IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on
Integrated Network Management (IM 2013)
, 2013-5.
[ English page ]
[ 論文 PDF file ]
[ スライド ]

要約: A method for federating multiple network-virtualization platforms by creating and managing slices (virtual networks) is proposed. A cross-domain slice can be created, deleted, or modified by sending a slice specification to the domain controller (network manager) of one domain. The specification is then propagated to other domains. Two chal­lenges were addressed while this method was developed. The first challenge is to enable federation among multiple domains that do not support federation functions by only adding a few components without modification of the existing network-virtualization-platform architecture. A domain-dependent specification of a slice, containing a pseudo virtual node that encloses a part of the slice specification in the other domains, is used, and this part is handled by a proxy node that represents another domain and a control component that implements a federation API to create a cross-domain slice. The second challenge is to enable manageable non-IP (arbitrary-format) data communication on a cross-domain slice. For an inter-domain communication, underlay VLAN parameters including MAC addresses are negotiated in advance and data packets on a slice are tunneled between gateways in these domains. The proposed federation method was implemented on two network-virtualization platforms, federation between two homogeneous domains was successfully demonstrated, federation perfor­mance was measured, and several issues on functional restrictions and implementation difficulty were found.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード:

Kanada, Y., 2013 Workshop on
Software Defined Networks for Future Networks and Services (SDN4FNS 2013)
, 2013-11, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/sdn4fns.2013.6702531
[ English page ]
[ 論文 PDF file ]
[ スライド ]

要約: Virtualization nodes, i.e., physical nodes with network virtualization functions, contain computational and networking components. Virtualization nodes called “VNodes” enabled mutually independent evolution of computational component called programmer and networking component called redirector. However, no methodology for this evolution has been available. Accordingly, a method for evolving programmer and redirector and developing new types of virtualized networking and/or computational functions in two steps is proposed. The first step is to develop a new function without updating the original VNode, which continues services to existing slices, using a proposed plug-in architecture. This architecture defines predefined interfaces called open VNode plug-in interfaces (OVPIs), which connect a data and a control plug-ins to a VNode. The second step is to merge the completed plug-ins into the original programmer or redirector. A prototype implementation of the above plug-in architecture was developed, tested, and evaluated. The prototype extends the redirector by adding new types of virtual links and new types of network accommodation. Estimated throughputs of a VLAN-based network accommodation and a VLAN-based virtual link using network processors are close to a wire rate of 10 Gbps.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: Network-node plug-in architecture, Data plugin, Control plug-in, Network virtualization, Virtualization node, VNode, Virtual link, Network processors

Kanada, Y., 1st IEEE/IFIP International Workshop on SDN Management and Orchestration (SDNMO 2014), May 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/noms.2014.6838417
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Abstract – Network virtualization introduces two concepts: slice (i.e., virtual network), which consists of virtual nodes and links, and slice developer, which is the third role in networks. Slice developers can introduce new network services by using slices. A method for introducing new types of virtual nodes and links for new services into the slicedefinition language and the virtualization infrastructure by evolving physical nodes (i.e., “virtualization nodes” or VNodes) is proposed. This evolution consists of two stages: the experimental stage and the operational stage. In the experimental stage, data and control plug-ins are developed and tested by the operator or vendor by using experimental sliver definitions. In the operational stage, which is focused on in this study, the plug-ins are integrated into original components in the infrastructure and are available for slice development by using normal sliver definitions. By mapping type names to plug-in identifiers and parameters, the proposed method enables abstract and simple definitions of slices by slice developers and authorization of plug-ins by the operator, but it remains the loose integration of the new function, i.e., the plug-in architecture used in the experimental stage. Prototyping and evaluation demonstrates that this method greatly simplifies both slice developers’ tasks and operators’ tasks.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: Slice developer, Network-node evolution, Node plug-in architecture, Data plug-in, Control plug-in, Network virtualization, Virtualization node, VNode infrastructure, Virtual-link type creation, Deep programmability.

Kanada, Y., 2nd International Workshop on Network Management and Monitoring (NetMM 2014), May 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/waina.2014.112
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Abstract – A network processor (NP) usually contains multiple packet processing cores (PPCs) and a control processing core (CPC), and the synchronization and communication between CPC and PPCs, which is required for controlling an NP, is very complex. To reduce the complexity, a method for controlling packet processing in NPs by using PPCs is proposed. By means of this method, complex control messages are partially processed and divided into simplified control packets by a CPU outside the NP chip, and these packets are sent to a control-processing PPC. The control-processing PPC controls data-processing PPCs by using data-exchange mechanisms, such as a shared memory or an on-chip network, which are more uniform and simpler than those between a CPC and PPCs. This control method is applied to a virtual-link controlprocessing task and packet-processing tasks in a network node with a virtualization function. Both tasks are described by a hardware-independent high-level language called “Phonpl,” and communication between the PPCs is programmed following normal and uniform shared-memory semantics. As a result, programming the control-processing task and porting the program become much easier.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: Network processors, Multi core, Control processing, Packet processing, Network virtualization

Yasusi Kanada, ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Memory Systems Performance and Correctness (MSPC 2014), poster, June 2014.
[ English page ]
[ ポスター写真 ]
[ ポスター原稿 ]

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード:

Kanada, Y., and Tarui, T., ポスター, Virtualization Symposium 2014, July 2014.
[ English page ]
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Summary: A method for providing functions of VNode infrastructure switches, such as switching or routing, to slices is proposed. The plug-in interfaces and the interfaces for providing layer-3/VLAN switch functions to slices were designed, implemented, and evaluated.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: Network-node plug-in architecture; Network virtualization; Virtualization node; VNode; In-slice switching; In-slice routing; Deep programmability

Kanada, Y., Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 34, pp. 661-667, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2014.07.094
Kanada, Y., Workshop on Software Defined Networks for a New Generation of Applications and Services (SDN-NGAS 2014), August 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2014.07.094
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Abstract: Although nodes in a network-virtualization infrastructure, which is called a virtualization node, usually contain a switch or a router with sophisticated and high-performance functions such as Ethernet switching, VLAN, and IP routing, most of such infrastructure functions cannot be reused as program components by slices. Accordingly, a method for providing such functions to slices on a virtualization node (VNode) infrastructure, by applying the previously proposed plug-in architecture, is proposed. This architecture defines two types of plug-ins, i.e., control plug-ins and data plug-ins, and interfaces for them. As for the proposed method, the switch or router in the VNode is regarded as a data plug-in, and a control plug-in that allocates and isolates the switch/router resources was developed. The data plug-in interface was customized to handle a data plug-in, i.e., a layer-3 switch in a VNode, and a control plug-in and the interfaces for providing layer-3/VLAN switch functions to slices were designed, implemented, and evaluated. The evaluation result shows that instead of specifying a routing/switching program or method, specifying only an additional 8 to 25 lines in a slice definition enables slice developers to use routing and switching functions.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: Network-node plug-in architecture; Network virtualization; Virtualization node; VNode; In-slice switching; In-slice routing; Deep programmability

Kanada, Y., 22nd International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCom 2014), September 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/softcom.2014.7039092
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Abstract: A previously developed plug-in architecture for network-virtualization nodes allows network operators to introduce new types of virtual nodes and links and slice developers to use them in slices (i.e., virtual networks). In this paper, a method for extending network-virtualization infrastructures by introducing plug-ins to nodes in the infrastructure and a freely-designed plug-in-specific packet header, which enable sharing part of packet contents among the same type of plug-ins distributed in the infrastructure, is proposed. The header is inserted into every data packet handled by the nodes, but it is hidden from slices in a “clean virtualization” infrastructure. This method was applied to creation of a new type of virtual links with network-delay measurement function using a hidden timestamp in each packet. The timestamps do not affect slices; that is, conventional programs can be used in the slice for the measurement without modification. The method was evaluated by edge-to-edge delay measurements and the evaluation results show that it is suitable for developing new functions, including functions requiring wire- rate performance, in shared/public networks.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード:

Kanada, Y. and Tarui, T., 29th edition of the International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN 2015), January 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICOIN.2015.7057895.
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(この論文は 最優秀論文賞 を受賞しました).

Abstract – Our previous work enabled “federation-less federation”, which means a federation of multiple network-virtualization platforms that do not support federation functions, and applied this method to a homogeneous federation of platforms called the “VNode” infrastructures. In this study, this method was applied to a heterogeneous federation of the ProtoGENI and the “VNode”. We intended to federate these platforms through a single management interface. However, the federation architecture of GENI, which is called the slice-based federation architec- ture (SFA), cannot be used for single-interface federation but we could not modify the ProtoGENI platform to enable it. Therefore, a method for applying federation-less-federation to ProtoGENI was developed. It enabled federation of these platforms by adding several nodes but without modifying preexisting platforms. This method was applied to federation of the ProtoGENI platform at the University of Utah and two VNode infrastructures in Japan, the slice creation and deletion time was measured and evaluated to be acceptable. Although this federation-less-federation imple- mentation still has several minor problems, it was proved to be useful for experiments and demonstrations.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: ネットワーク仮想化, VNode, ネットワーク仮想化ノード, フェデレーション, GENI, ProtoGENI, Slice-based federation architecture (SFA)

Kanada, Y., Communications and Network, Vol. 7, pp. 55-69, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cn.2015.71006
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Abstract – Network processors (NPs) are widely used for programmable and high-performance networks; however, the programs for NPs are less portable, the number of NP program developers is small, and the development cost is high. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an open, high-level, and portable programming language called “Phonepl”, which is independent from vendor-specific proprietary hardware and software but can be translated into an NP program with high perfor- mance especially in the memory use. A common NP hardware feature is that a whole packet is stored in DRAM, but the header is cached in SRAM. Phonepl has a hardware-independent abstrac- tion of this feature so that it allows programmers mostly unconscious of this hardware feature. To implement the abstraction, four representations of packet data type that cover all the packet op- erations (including substring, concatenation, input, and output) are introduced. Phonepl have been implemented on Octeon NPs used in plug-ins for a network-virtualization environment called the VNode Infrastructure, and several packet-handling programs were evaluated. As for the eval- uation result, the conversion throughput is close to the wire rate, i.e., 10 Gbps, and no packet loss (by cache miss) occurs when the packet size is 256 bytes or larger.

キーワード: Network Processors, Portability, High-Level Language, Hardware Independence, Memory Usage, DRAM, SRAM, Network Virtualization

Kanada, Y., 第 13 回ネットワーク仮想化研究会, 2015-3.
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要約: In IP/Ethernet-based networks, redundant addresses, both IP and MAC addresses, are used. Problems caused by this redundancy can be solved by replacing IP/Ethernet by IP/null (IPON) protocol. It was implemented using VNodes.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード:

Tarui, T., Kanada, Y., Hayashi, M., Nakao, A., IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on
Integrated Network Management (IM 2015)
, 2015-5.
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[ Paper ]

要約: An architecture called the slice-exchange-point (SEP) has been designed for federating heterogeneous net-work-virtualization platforms by creating and managing slices (virtual networks). SEP enables whole inter-domain resources to be managed by the network manager of any single domain. Slice-operation commands are propagated to other domains through SEP by using a common API. SEP introduces the following four features: infrastructure neutrality, single interface federation, abstract and clean federation, and extensibility of capabilities. SEP's functions to achieve these features are discussed. SEP was partially implemented on two VNode domains and one ProtoGENI domain and was verified to function effectively.

研究テーマ紹介: ネットワーク仮想化

キーワード: