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Examples of Simple Problem Solving Using CCM


CCM is a model for symbol processing by randomized method only using local information. A program using CCM consists of production rules (only one rule in typical cases such as below) and local evaluation functions. Both of them are computed only using local data (or only a few number of data). CCM is similar to Genetic Algorithms in some sense. In the pages below, several examples using Java are shown.

This page and the pages linked from here contain explanation for experts. If you are not interested in the detail, try only the examples (links with smiley ()). (Note that the methods used here are not the standard methods for solving these problems.)

Examples Using Java

Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are suited for CCM. Three (plus one) CSPs are shown for examples.

The N queens problem and sorting
Solutions of the N queens can be computed and N data can be sorted using the same rule but using different local evaluation functions. This page contains an applet that solves these problems.
Coloring of maps and graph vertices
The USA mainland map is colored using four colors for example.
Magic Squares
Magic squares are found using CCM.

A computational language called SOOC, which is based on CCM, has been developed on the top of Lisp. As explained in the introduction, types of programs can be easily expressed as a combination of production rules and local evaluation functions. However, SOOC has not yet transplanted to Java. So, the above programs are ``hand-compiled'' into Java functions in the above programs.

I have tested the Java applets, which are linked from the above pages, both on Netscape Navigator 3.0 and on Internet Explorer 3.0 on Windows 95, and on several other clients. However, they are not necessarily work correctly on clients on Macintosh. I am sorry if your client does not work well (_o_)


See a link collection on CCM. There are two reference lists. One is a list ordered in reverse time order and a list sorted by the types of problems, which can also be accessed indirectly through the first link collection. There is also a list of papers, which also contains papers on other researches (which is available only in Japanese currently). You can choose which you think the best.

Most of the papers in the above lists are accessed in PostScript format on the Internet. However, the following papers are in HTML, so you can directly see them using Web browsers.

The most recent paper in English is

CCM was deviced in Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., which the author still belongs, and developed in Tsukuba Research Center, Real World Computing Partnership. However, the applets above are not developed in my organizational job. So, the copyright belongs to the author himself. You can copy or rewrite the applets freely unless commercial purpose.

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Copyright (C) 1996 Yasusi Kanada
Send comments to yasusi @ kanadas.com.
Created: 9/29/1996, Updated: 4/12/2015.