3D printers are usually used for printing objects designed by 3D CAD exactly, i.e., deterministically.However, 3Dprinting process contains stochastic selforganization process that generate emergent patterns. A method for generating fully self-organized patterns using a fused depositionmodeling (FDM) 3D printer has been developed. Melted plastic filament is extruded constantly in this method; however, by using thismethod, various patterns, such as stripes, splitting and/or merging patterns, and meshes can be generated. A cellular-automata-based computational model that can simulate such patterns have also been developed.
Introduction to this research theme: 3D shape formation technologies