Abstract: Material is stacked vertically and layer-by-layer in conventional additive manufacturing (AM) methods. An object with overhang or skewed stacking structure, such as a plain dish or an empty sphere, is difficult to be created by these methods without support material. This paper proposes a layer-less fused-deposition-modeling (FDM) method that enables mostly horizontal stacking of filament without support material. Such filament-stacking is enabled by increasing the height of the print head gradually, i.e., without layer transitions that make horizontal stacking difficult. The proposed method also allows controlling printing directions and various printing-direction-dependent expressions, such as fiber-like textures or brilliance, which make AM products attractive as final products for consumers or as some kinds of industrial products. Objects to be printed can be modeled as directed solid models designed by a component-based method (i.e., a new CAD based method) or a generative method, which are completely different from conventional CAD based methods.
Introduction to this research theme: 3D shape formation technologies